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This may not, ethnologically or physiologically speaking, be a very clear and logical construction.[16] Haney Lopez explains that the emphasis upon descent, repeated three times in a single sentence, changes the ambiguity of white into a fixed, biological, and natural grouping. Like the Shahid case, the court recognized the ambiguity of basing its decision upon skin color in the Ozawa case.

Instead of utilizing the ambiguity of the language of white and non-white as a way to question the credibility of physical, racial categorization, the court gave further legitimacy to a non-scientific concept. The court based its decision against admitting Takao Ozawa, a Japanese man, on its interpretation of the original framers, which “was to confer the privilege of citizenship upon that class of persons whom the fathers knew as white, and to deny it to all those who could not so be classified.” In Thind, the court ruled that a white person “was a person the average well informed white American” knew to be white.

The courts utilized two primary rationales for delineating white and non-white: physical characteristics and publicly held common sense knowledge.

Du Bois wrote: “the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color-line.” Despite claims that we live in a “post-racial” society after the historic election of Barack Obama, the fact remains that the color line and racial hierarchy endures in the 21st century.Millennials trail Baby Boomers and Generation Xers in the number of households they head.But Millennial-run households represent the largest group in some key categories, such as the number in poverty or the number headed by a single mother.The stated purpose for regulating inter-racial marriage was to prevent people of African American, Native American, Asiatic Indian, West Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Filipino ancestry from marrying whites, as a way to protect perceived white purity. For example, until 1931, a woman who was qualified in every respect to become a citizen, could not naturalize if she was married to a foreigner racially ineligible for citizenship.Anti-miscegenation laws were officially enforced by imprisonment, hard labor, and monetary penalty, and by vigilante justice, including lynching.[15] Laws barring interracial marriage extended to the process of naturalization into U. Moreover, even if a woman was already a citizen, she could be stripped of citizenship if she married a racially ineligible foreigner.

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